Used as the subject of a verb when the speaker or writer is referring to himself / herself: I think I’d better go now. He and I are old friends. When they asked me if I wanted the job, I said yes. I’m not going to fall, am I? I’m taller than her, aren’t I?
The form of I that is used when the speaker or writer is the object of a verb or preposition, or after the verb “be”: Don’t hit me. Excuse me! Give it to me. You’re taller than me. Hello, it’s me. “Who’s there? Only me.”
My: determiner (the possessive form of “I”)
- Of or belonging to the speaker or writer: Where’s my passport? My feet are cold.
- Used in exclamations to express surprise, etc.: My goodness! Look at the time!
- Used when addressing sb, to show affection: my dear / darling / love.
- Used when addressing sb that you consider to have a lower status than you: My dear girl, you’re wrong.
(The reflexive form of I) used when the speaker or writer is also the person affected by an action: I cut myself on a knife. I wrote a message to myself. I found myself unable to speak. I haven’t been feeling myself recently (= I have not felt well). I needed space to be myself (= not Influenced by other people).
Used to emphasize the fact that the speaker is doing sth: I’ll speak to her myself. I myself do not agree.
(The possessive form of I) of or belonging to the person writing or speaking: That’s mine. He’s a friend of mine (= one of my friends). She wanted one like mine (= like I have).
(All) by myself
- Alone, without anyone else: I live by myself.
- Without help: I painted the room all by myself.
(All) to myself: for the speaker or writer alone, not shared: I had a whole pizza to myself.
Used as the subject or object of a verb or after a preposition to refer to the person or people being spoken or written to: You said you knew the way. I thought she told you. Can I sit next to you? I don’t think that hairstyle is you (= it doesn’t suit your appearance or personality).
Used with nouns and adjectives to speak to sb directly: You girls, stop talking! You stupid idiot!
Used for referring to people in general: You learn a language better if you visit the country where it is spoken. It’s a friendly place – people come up to you in the street and start talking.
Your: determiner (the possessive form of you)
Of or belonging to the person or people being spoken or written to: I like your dress. Excuse me, is this your seat? The bank is on your right.
Of or belonging to people in general: Dentists advise you to have your teeth checked every six months. In Japan you are taught great respect for your elders.
(Informal) used to show that sb/sth is well known or often talked about: This is your typical English pub. (Ironic, disapproving) You and your bright ideas!
Your used in some titles, especially those of royal people: Your Majesty. Your Excellency
Of or belonging to you: Is that book yours? Is she a friend of yours? My hair is very fine. Yours is much thicker.
(Usually yours) used at the end of a letter before signing your name: (BrE) yours sincerely / faithfully (NAmE) Sincerely Yours (NAmE) Yours Truly
(The reflexive form of you) used when the person or people being spoken to both cause and are affected by an action: Have you hurt yourself? You don’t seem quite yourself today (= you do not seem well or do not seem as happy as usual). Enjoy yourselves!
Used to emphasize the fact that the person who is being spoken to is doing sth: Do it yourself – I don’t have time. You can try it out for yourselves. You yourself are one of the chief offenders.
You: We sell a lot of these to people like yourself. “And yourself, he replied, How are you?”
(All) by yourself / yourselves
Alone, without anyone else: How long were you by yourself in the house?
Without help: Are you sure you did this exercise by yourself?
(All) to yourself / yourselves: for only you to have, use, and etc.: I’m going to be away next week so you’ll have the office to yourself.
Be yourself: to act naturally: Don’t act sophisticated – just be yourself.
I and another person or other people; you and I: We’ve moved to Atlanta. We’d (= the company would) like to offer you the job. Why don’t we go and see it together?
People in general: We should take more care of our historic buildings.
Us: pronoun (the object form of “we”)
Used when the speaker or writer and another or others are the object of a verb or preposition or after the verb “be”: She gave us a picture as a wedding present. We’ll take the dog with us. Hello, it’s us back again.
(BrE, Informal) me: Give us the newspaper, will you?
Our: determiner (the possessive form of “we”)
Belonging to us, connected with us: our daughter / dog / house. We showed them some of our photos. Our main export is rice. And now, over to our Rome correspondent…
Our used to refer to or address God or a holy person: Our Father (= God) Our Lady (= the Virgin Mary)
The one or ones that belong to us: Their house is very similar to ours, but ours is bigger. No, those are Ellie’s kids. Ours are upstairs. He’s a friend of ours.
The reflexive form of we; used when you and another person or other people together cause and are affected by an action: We shouldn’t blame ourselves for what happened. Let’s just relax and enjoy ourselves. We’d like to see it for ourselves.
Used to emphasize we or us; sometimes used instead of these words: We’ve often thought of going there ourselves. The only people there were ourselves.
(All) by ourselves
Alone; without anyone else
Without help: (All) to ourselves: for us alone; not shared with anyone: We had the pool all to ourselves.
People, animals or things that have already been mentioned or are easily identified: “Where are John and Liz? They went for a walk.” They (= the things you are carrying) go on the bottom shelf.
Used instead of he or she to refer to a person whose sex is not mentioned or not known: If anyone arrives late they’ll have to wait outside.
People in general: The rest, as they say, is history.
people in authority or experts: They cut my water off. They now say that red wine is good for you.
Them: pronoun (the object form of “they”)
Used when referring to people, animals or things as the object of a verb or preposition, or after the verb “be”: Tell them the news. What are you doing with those matches? Give them to me. Did you eat all of them? It’s them.
Used instead of him or her to refer to a person whose sex is not mentioned or not known: If anyone comes in before I get back, ask them to wait.
Their: determiner (the possessive form of “they”)
Of or belonging to them: Their parties are always fun. Which is their house?
Used instead of his or her to refer to a person whose sex is not mentioned or not known: If anyone calls, ask for their number so I can call them back.
(The reflexive form of they) used when people or animals performing an action are also affected by it: They seemed to be enjoying themselves. The children were arguing amongst themselves. They’ve bought themselves a new car.
Used to emphasize “they” or a plural subject: They themselves had had a similar experience. Don and Julie paid for it themselves.
Used instead of “himself or herself” to refer to a person whose sex is not mentioned or not known: There wasn’t anyone who hadn’t enjoyed themselves.
Although this use of themselves is fairly common, especially in spoken English, many people think it is not correct.
(All) by themselves
Alone, without anyone else: They wanted to spend the evening by themselves.
Without help: They did the cooking by themselves. (All) to themselves: for them alone; not shared with anyone.
A male person or animal that has already been mentioned or is easily identified: Everyone liked my father – he was the perfect gentleman. He (= the man we are watching) went through that door.
(Becoming old-fashioned) a person, male or female, whose sex is not stated or known, especially when referring to sb mentioned earlier or to a group in general: Every child needs to know that he is loved. (Saying) He who (= anyone who) hesitates is lost.
He used when referring to God
Used as the object of a verb, after the verb be or after a preposition to refer to a male person or animal that has already been mentioned or is easily identified: When did you see him? He took the children with him. I’m taller than him. It’s him.
Him used when referring to God
His: determiner, pronoun
Determiner (the possessive form of “he”)
- Of or belonging to a man or boy who has already been mentioned or is easily identified: James has sold his car. He broke his leg skiing.
- His of or belonging to God
- Of or belonging to him: He took my hand in his. The choice was his. A friend of his.
(The reflexive form of he) used when the man or boy who performs an action is also affected by it: He introduced himself. Peter ought to be ashamed of himself.
Used to emphasize the male subject or object of a sentence: The doctor said so himself. Did you see the manager himself?
Be, seem, etc. himself: (of a man or boy) to be in a normal state of health or happiness; not Influenced by other people: He didn’t seem quite himself this morning. He needed space to be himself.
(All) by himself
Alone, without anyone else: He lives all by himself.
Without help: He managed to repair the car by himself.
(All) to himself: for only him to have or use: He has the house to himself during the week.
(Used as the subject of a verb) a female person or animal that has already been mentioned or is easily identified: “What does your sister do? She’s a dentist.” Doesn’t she (= the woman we are looking at) look like Sue?
[Sing.] (Informal) a female: What a sweet little dog. Is it a he or a she?
Her: pronoun, determiner
Pronoun: used as the object of a verb, after the verb be or after a preposition to refer to a woman or girl who has already been mentioned or is easily identified: We’re going to call her Sophie. Please give her my regards. The manager will be free soon – you can wait for her here. That must be her now.
Determiner: (the possessive form of “she”) of or belonging to a woman or girl who has already been mentioned or is easily identified: Meg loves her job. She broke her leg skiing.
Of or belonging to her: His eyes met hers. The choice was hers. A friend of hers.
- (The reflexive form of she) used when the woman or girl who performs an action is also affected by it: She hurt herself. She must be very proud of herself.
- Used to emphasize the female subject or object of a sentence: She told me the news herself. Jane herself was at the meeting.
Be, seem, etc. herself: (of a woman or girl) to be in a normal state of health or happiness; not Influenced by other people: She didn’t seem quite herself this morning. She needed space to be herself.
(All) by herself
- Alone, without anyone else: She lives by herself.
- Without help: She runs the business by herself.
(All) to herself: for only her to have or use: She wants a room all to herself.
Used to refer to an animal or a thing that has already been mentioned or that is being talked about now: Where’s your car? It’s in the garage.” Did you see it? Start a new file and put this letter in it. Look! It’s going up that tree. We have $500. Will it be enough for a deposit?
Used to refer to a baby, especially one whose sex is not known: Her baby’s due next month. She hopes it will be a boy.
Used to refer to a fact or situation that is already known or happening: When the factory closes, it will mean 500 people losing their jobs. Yes, I was at home on Sunday. What about it? (= Why do you ask?) Stop it; you’re hurting me!
Used to identify a person: It’s your mother on the phone. Hello, Peter, it’s Mike here. Hi, it’s me! Was it you who put these books on my desk?
Used in the position of the subject or object of a verb when the real subject or object is at the end of the sentence: Does it matter what colour it is? It’s impossible to get there in time. It’s no use shouting. She finds it boring at home. It appears that the two leaders are holding secret talks. I find it strange that she doesn’t want to go.
Used in the position of the subject of a verb when you are talking about time, the date, distance, the weather, etc.: It’s ten past twelve. It’s our anniversary. It’s two miles to the beach. It’s a long time since they left. It was raining this morning. It’s quite warm at the moment.
Used when you are talking about a situation: If it’s convenient I can come tomorrow. It’s good to talk. I like it here.
Used to emphasize any part of a sentence: It’s Jim who’s the clever one. It’s Spain that they’re going to, not Portugal. It was three weeks later that he heard the news.
Exactly what is needed: In this business, either you’ve got it or you haven’t.
Belonging to or connected with a thing, an animal or a baby: Turn the box on its side. Have you any idea of its value? The dog had hurt its paw. The baby threw its food on the floor.
(The reflexive form of it) used when the animal or thing that does an action is also affected by it: The cat was washing itself. Does the VCR turn itself off? The company has got itself into difficulties. There’s no need for the team to feel proud of itself.
(Used to emphasize an animal, a thing, etc.): The village itself is pretty, but the surrounding countryside is rather dull.
Be patience, honesty, simplicity, etc. itself: to be an example of complete patience, etc.: The manager of the hotel was courtesy itself.
(All) by itself
Automatically, without anyone doing anything: The machine will start by itself in a few seconds.
Alone: The house stands by itself in an acre of land.
In itself: considered separately from other things; in its true nature: In itself, it’s not a difficult problem to solve.
To itself: not shared with others: It doesn’t have the market to itself.
That is it
This/that is the important point, reason, etc.: That’s just it – I can’t work when you’re making so much noise.
This/that is the end: I’m afraid that’s it – we’ve lost.
This is it
The expected event is just going to happen: Well, this is it! Wish me luck.
This is the main point: “You’re doing too much. Well, this is it. I can’t cope with any more work.”