… and …
Also; in addition to: bread and butter, a table, two chairs and a desk. Sue and I left early. Do it slowly and carefully. Can he read and write?
When and is used in common phrases connecting two things or people that are closely linked, the determiner is not usually repeated before the second: a knife and fork, my father and mother, but a knife and a spoon, my father and my uncle.
Added to. SYN plus: 5 and 5 makes 10. What’s 47 and 16?
When numbers (but not dates) are spoken, and is used between the hundreds and the figures that follow: 2,264 – two thousand, two hundred and sixty-four, but 1964 – nineteen sixty-four.
Then: following this: She came in and took her coat off.
Go, come, try, stay, etc: used before a verb instead of to, to show purpose: Go and get me a pen please. I’ll come and see you soon. We stopped and bought some bread. In this structure try can only be used in the Infinitive or to tell somebody what to do.
Used to introduce a comment or a question: “We talked for hours. And what did you decide?”
As a result: Miss another class and you’ll fail.
Used between repeated words to show that sth is repeated or continuing: He tried and tried but without success. The pain got worse and worse.
Used between repeated words to show that there are important differences between things or people of the same kind: I like city life but there are cities and cities.
(Formal) used to introduce some new Information that adds to or supports what you have said previously. SYN in addition: A talented artist, he was, moreover, a writer of some note.
In addition to
In addition (to sb/sth): used when you want to mention another person or thing after sth else: In addition to these arrangements, extra ambulances will be on duty until midnight. There is, in addition, one further point to make.
In addition to sb/sth: apart from sb/sth: We have lots of things in common besides music. Besides working as a doctor, he also writes novels in his spare time. I’ve got no family besides my parents.
- Used for making an extra comment that adds to what you have just said: I don’t really want to go. Besides, it’s too late now.
- In addition; also: Discounts on televisions, stereos and much more besides.
Besides / apart from / except
The preposition besides means “in addition to”: What other sports do you like besides football? You use except when you mention the only thing that is not included in a statement: I like all sports except football. You can use apart from with both these meanings: What other sports do you like apart from football? I like all sports apart from football.
Beside / besides
The preposition beside usually means “next to something / somebody” or “at the side of something / somebody”: Sit here beside me. Besides means “in addition to something”: What other sports do you play besides hockey? Do not use beside with this meaning.
The adverb besides is not usually used on its own with the same meaning as the preposition. It is mainly used to give another reason or argument for something: I don’t think I’ll come on Saturday. I have a lot of work to do. Besides, I don’t really like parties.
… also …
(Not used with negative verbs) in addition; too: She’s fluent in French and German. She also speaks a little Italian, rubella, also known as German measles. I didn’t like it that much. Also, it was much too expensive. Jake’s father had also been a doctor (= both Jake and his father were doctors). She was not only intelligent but also very musical.
… not only … (but) also …: used to emphasize that sth else is also true: She not only wrote the text but also selected the illustrations.
… not only … but (also) …: both … and …: He not only read the book, but also remembered what he had read.
Also / as well / too
Also is more formal than as well and too, and it usually comes before the main verb or after “be”: I went to New York last year, and I also spent some time in Washington. In BrE it is not usually used at the end of a sentence. Too is much more common in spoken and Informal English. It is usually used at the end of a sentence: “I’m going home now. I’ll come too.” In BrE as well is used like too, but in NAmE it sounds formal or old-fashioned.
When you want to add a second negative point in a negative sentence, use “not … either”: She hasn’t phoned and she hasn’t written either. If you are adding a negative point to a positive one, you can use “not … as well / too”: You can have a burger, but you can’t have fries as well.
(Usually placed at the end of a clause) also, as well: Can I come too? When I’ve finished painting the bathroom, I’m going to do the kitchen too.
Used to introduce the next item in a series of actions, events, instructions, etc.: He drank a glass of whisky, then another and then another. First cook the onions, and then add the mushrooms. We lived in France and then Italy before coming back to England.
Used to introduce additional Information: She’s been very busy at work and then there was all that trouble with her son.
(Formal) in addition to what has just been stated. Furthermore is used especially to add a point to an argument. SYN moreover: He said he had not discussed the matter with her. Furthermore, he had not even contacted her.