This

Used to refer to a particular person, thing or event that is close to you. Especially compared with another: How long have you been living in this country? Well, make up your mind. Which do you want? This one or that one? I think you’ll find these more comfortable than those. Is this your bag?
Used to refer to sth/sb that has already been mentioned: There was a court case resulting from this incident. The boy was afraid and the dog had sensed this. What’s this I hear about you getting married?
Used for introducing sb or showing sth to sb: Hello, this is Maria Diaz (= on the telephone). Jo, this is Kate (= when you are introducing them). This is the captain speaking. Listen to this. Do it like this (= in the way I am showing you).
Used with periods of time related to the present: this week / month / year. I saw her this morning (= today in the morning). Do you want me to come this Tuesday (= Tuesday of this week) or next Tuesday? Do it this minute (= now). He never comes to see me these days (= now, as compared with the past).
This sth of sb’s (Informal) used to refer to sb/sth that is connected with a person, especially when you have a particular attitude towards it or them: These new friends of hers are supposed to be very rich.
(Informal) used when you are telling a story or telling sb about sth: There was this strange man sitting next to me on the plane. I’ve been getting these pains in my chest.

That

Used for referring to a person or thing that is not near the speaker or as near to the speaker as another: Look at that man over there. How much are those apples at the back?
Used for referring to sb/sth that has already been mentioned or is already known about: I was living with my parents at that time. That incident changed their lives. Have you forgotten about that money I lent you last week?
Used for referring to a person or thing that is not near the speaker, or not as near to the speaker as another: Who’s that? That’s Peter over there. Hello. Is that Jo? That’s a nice dress. Those look riper than these.
Used for referring to sb/sth that has already been mentioned, or is already known about: What can I do about that? Do you remember when we went to Norway? That was a good trip. That’s exactly what I think.
(Formal) used for referring to people or things of a particular type: Those present were in favour of change. There are those who say (= some people say) she should not have got the job. Salaries are higher here than those in my country.

There

There is, are, was, were, etc. used to show that sth exists or happens: There’s a restaurant around the corner. There are two people waiting outside. Has there been an accident? I don’t want there to be any misunderstanding. There seemed to be no doubt about it. There comes a point where you give up. There remains the problem of finance. Suddenly there was a loud bang. (Informal) There’s only four days left. (Literary) There once was a poor farmer who had four sons.
In, at or to that place or position: We went on to Paris and stayed there eleven days. I hope we get there in time. It’s there, right in front of you! There it is – just behind the chair. “Have you seen my pen? Yes, it’s over there.” There are a lot of people back there (= behind) waiting to get in. I’m not going in there – it’s freezing! We’re almost there (= we have almost arrived). Can I get there and back in a day? I left in 1990 and I haven’t been back there since. Hello, is Bob there please? (= Used when calling sb on the phone) I took one look at the car and offered to buy it there and then / then and there (= immediately).
Existing or available: I went to see if my old school was still there. The money’s there if you need it.
At that point (in a story, an argument, etc.): “I feel…” There she stopped. I don’t agree with you there.
Used to attract sb’s attention: Hello, there! You there! Come back! There you are! I’ve been looking for you everywhere.
Used to attract sb’s attention to a particular person, thing or fact: There’s the statue I was telling you about. That woman there is the boss’s wife. There goes the last bus (= we’ve just missed it). There goes the phone (= it’s ringing). (Humorous) There goes my career! (= My career is ruined) So, there you have it: that’s how it all started.
There to do sth used to show the role of a person or thing in a situation: The fact is they’re there to make money.