5. PAST SIMPLE
– The normal rule is to add “ed” after regular verbs.
Work => worked, start => started, play => played…
– If the verb ends in _e, add _d
Love => loved, like=> liked, change => changed
– If the verb has only one syllable + one vowel + one consonant, double the consonant. The consonant is not doubled if it is “y” or “w”
Stop => stopped, plan => planned, travel => travelled…
– In most two-syllable verbs, the end consonant is doubled if the stress is on the second syllable.
Ex: preferred, admitted…
– If the verb ends in a consonant + y, change the “_y” to “_ied”
Study => studied, try => tried, deny => denied
There are many common irregular verbs.
The form of the present is the same for all persons.
|I/ you/ we/ they/ he/ she/ it||V + “ed”|
– The past simple expresses a past action that is now finished.
Ex: we played tennis last Sunday. I began to learn English 10 years ago. John left 2 hours ago.
– To express actions which follow each other in a story.
Ex: Mary walked into the room and stopped. She listened carefully. She heard a noise coming from behind the curtain. She threw the curtain open, and then she saw…He woke up early, jumped out of bed, dressed quickly and without having breakfast, left home.
– To express a past situation or habit.
Ex: when I was a child, we lived in a small house by the sea. Everyday I walked for miles on the beach with my dog.
– Notice the time expressions that are used with past simple: “last year, ago, yesterday, in 1990…”
Ex: I was born in 1897. She met her teacher at the school yesterday.
6. PAST CONTINUOUS
|I/ she/ he/ it||Was|
|You/ we/ they||Were|
– We often use the past continuous in sentences together with the past simple when this happens; the past continuous refers to longer, “background” activities, while the past simple refers to shorter actions that happened in the middle of the longer ones.
Ex: when I went to school, I saw Jim was talking with a beautiful girl.
– The past continuous expresses a past activity that has duration.
Ex: I met her while I was walking on the street. You were making a lots noise last night. We were playing football yesterday afternoon.
– The activity began “before” the action expressed by the past simple.
Ex: she was making coffee when we arrived. When I phoned Marry, she was having dinner.
– The past continuous expresses an activity in progress before, and probable after, a time in the past.
Ex: when I woke up this morning, the sun was shining. What were you doing at 8 o’ clock last night?
* Compare past simple and past continuous
– The past simple expresses past actions as simple facts.
Ex: I did my homework last night. What sis you do yesterday evening? “I watched TV”.
– The past continuous gives past activities time and duration. The activity can be interrupted.
Ex: what were you doing at 7.00? “I was watching TV. I was doing homework when Tom arrived.
– In stories, the past continuous can describe the scene. The past simple tells the actions.
Ex: it was a beautiful day. The sun was shining and the birds were singing, so we decided to go for a picnic. We put everything in the car…
– The questions below refer to different time periods. The past continuous asks about activities before, and the past simple asks about what happened after.
|What were you doing?What did you do?||When it started to rain||We were playing tennis.We went home.|
7. PAST PERFECT
a. Form: Had + Ved
|I/ you/ we/ they/ he/ she/ it||Had + Ved|
– The past perfect is used to express an action in the past, which happened before another action in the past.
Ex: when I got home, John had cooked a meal.
*Note: the use of past perfect and the past simple in the following sentences.
Ex: when I got home, John had cooked a meal. (John cooked a meal before I got home)
When I got home, John cooked a meal. (First I got home, and then John cooked)
8. PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS
|I/ you/ we/ they/ he/ she/ it||Had + been + Ving|
– To express an action was happening before another action in the past.
Ex: by 9 o’clock last night, the pilot had been flying nine hours non-stop. They had been waiting for someone when they saw John go with a strange man. The football match had to be stopped. They had been playing half an hour when there was a heavy rain.
– We this tense for an action that went on over a period before a past time.
Ex: when I found the file, I’d been looking for it for some time. (The action of looking went on for some time before the discovery of the life.) When I saw Tom, he ‘d been playing golf. (I saw him after the game.)